Right-of-Way Recertification Program | Virginia DACS Approval #21-06-023

  Virginia Right-of-Way Recertification Program

Chapter 1 – Federal Pesticide Laws


Pesticides are hazardous substances that can cause serious harm if used improperly. Pesticides are regulated to utilize their benefits while protecting public health and welfare and preventing harm to the environment. Federal and state pesticide laws and regulations control the labeling, sale and distribution, storage, transportation, use, and disposal in the best public interest. This course addresses the requirements set forth by federal regulations. Pesticide applicators are responsible for learning about and complying with all regulations.

After completing this chapter participants will be able to:

  • Be able to describe and integrate important regulatory requirements related to labeling, hazard management, environmental issues, and application procedures.
  • Distinguish between restricted-use and general-use pesticide classifications.
  • Explain the importance of maintaining accurate records of pesticide application and employee training. 

Lesson 1 

  • The Need for Regulation 
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
  • Pesticide Registration
  • Tolerances
  • Pesticide Reregistration

Lesson 2 

  • Violations and Federal Penalties
  • Federal Pesticide Regulations under FIFRA
  • Other Federal Laws
  • Federal Recordkeeping Requirements

Chapter Assessment 

Chapter 2 – Pesticide Labeling


The pesticide label is the main method of communication between a pesticide manufacturer and pesticide users. The information printed on and attached to the pesticide container is the label. By law, pesticide users are required to comply with all instructions and use directions found on the pesticide product label. Labeling includes the label itself plus all other
information about the product referenced on the label and given when you buy the product. Pesticide labeling includes instructions on how to use the product safely and correctly.

After completing this chapter participants will be able to:

  • Interpret the meaning of label signal words, symbols, and their relative hazard levels.
  • Accurately identify the common, chemical, and brand or trade name of a pesticide.
  • Describe how to interpret other documents and online resources referenced on the label. 

Lesson 1 

  • EPA Approval of Pesticide Labeling
  • The Label
  • Types of Pesticide Registration
  • When to Read the Pesticide Label

Lesson 2 

  • Parts of the Label
  • Other Label Resources
  • Safety Data Sheets

Chapter Assessment 

Chapter 3 – Virginia Legal Update

Students will be re-directed to the VDACS website to view the Legal Updates presentation in its entirety.

Chapter Assessment

Chapter 4 – Right-of-Way: Pest Management Overview

Course Description

Pest management in right-of-way situations can be a challenge. The economic thresholds are different in right-of-way situations compared to either a landscape setting or an agricultural setting. The treatment areas can be more readily viewed by the public or could be too rough to reach using traditional equipment. While broadleaf and woody plant material is usually the major pests in right-of-way situations there can be insect and vertebrate pests that need management. This course provides an overview of pests common to rights-of-way, management solutions, a look at the equipment commonly used to treat rights-of-way, and a review of calibration steps for that equipment.

After completing this course participants will be able to:

  • Outline the principles of an IPM program in right-of-way situations
  • Identify weeds and other pests commonly found in rights-of-way
  • Identify and calibrate equipment commonly used in right-of-way applications
  • Demonstrate an understanding of professional conduct and how to interact with the public

Chapter 1 – Pest Management Overview

Lesson 1 – Integrated Pest Management

  • Integrated Pest Management
    • Pest Identification
    • Monitoring
    • Determination of Site-Specific Requirements
    • Development and Implementation of Control Strategies
    • Evaluating Control Strategies for Effectiveness
  • Pest Management Techniques
    • Biological Controls
      • Allelopathy
    • Cultural Controls
      • Timing of the planting
      • Nurse crops
      • Controlled burning
      • Mulching
      • Shading
      • Sanitation
    • Mechanical Controls
    • Chemical Controls
  • Special Environmental Concerns

Lesson 2 – Common Right-of-Way Weeds

  • Plant Types
    • Annuals
    • Biennials
    • Perennials
  • Developmental Stages
    • Seedling phase
    • Vegetative phase
    • Seed production phase
    • Maturity phase
  • Weed Biology
    • Monocots
    • Dicots
  • Classification of Land Plants
    • Grasses
    • Sedges
    • Herbaceous broadleaves
    • Vines
    • Brush and trees
    • Ferns
    • Parasitic seed plants
  • Classification of Aquatic Plants
    • Emergent
    • Floating
    • Submergent
    • Algae
  • Considerations

Lesson 3 – Weed Identification

  • Nomenclature Review
  • Ash
  • Black Locust
  • Boxelder
  • Poison Ivy
  • Red Maple
  • Sassafras
  • Wild Black Cherry
  • Black Willow
  • American Elm
  • Trembling Aspen (Quaking Aspen, Poplar)
  • Cattail
  • Chicory
  • Goldenrod (Gray Golden Rod)
  • Wild Carrot (Queen Anne's Lace)
  • Canada Thistle
  • Musk Thistle
  • Purple Loosestrife
  • Phragmites

Lesson 4 – Herbicides and Weeds

  • Factors Affecting Herbicidal Action
  • Herbicidal Action Characteristics
    • Foliage-absorbed vs Root-absorbed
    • Contact herbicide vs Systemic herbicide
    • Persistent vs Nonpersistent
    • Selective vs Nonselective
  • Plant Characteristics
    • Growing points
    • Leaf shape
    • Wax and cuticle
    • Leaf hairs
    • Deactivation
    • Stage in the life cycle
  • Climate Factors
    • Relative humidity
    • Light
    • Precipitation
    • Wind
    • Temperature
    • Length of growing season

Lesson 5 – Herbicides and Weeds – cont.

  • Selective Herbicides
    • Foliage spraying
      • Low volume ground foliar
        • Drift minimization
      • High volume ground foliar
      • Aerial application
    • Basal spray methods
      • Conventional basal spraying
      • Low volume basal spraying
    • Granular or pellet applications
    • Spotgun application
    • Cut surface applications
  • Non-Selective Herbicides
    • Soil
    • Moisture
    • Vegetation types
    • Soil Microorganisms
    • Application methods
  • Other Chemicals for Control

Lesson 6 – Plant Growth Regulators

  • Gibberellin Inhibitors
  • Auxin Type Regulators
  • Tree Growth Regulation
  • Roadside Turf Regulation

Lesson 7 – Other Right-of-Way Pests

  • Insect Pests
    • Chewing mouthparts
    • Piercing-sucking mouthparts
  • Managing Insects
    • No metamorphosis
    • Gradual metamorphosis
    • Complete metamorphosis
  • Disease Pest Management
  • Fungi and Insects in Wood Structures
  • Vertebrate Pest Management
    • Mechanical controls
    • Sanitation
    • Chemical controls

Lesson 8 – Equipment and Calibration

  • Application Equipment Components
    • Tank
    • Agitators
      • Mechanical agitation
      • Hydraulic agitation
    • Strainers
    • Pumps
      • Centrifugal pump
      • Gear pump
      • Roller pump
      • Diaphragm pump
      • Piston pump
    • Pressure regulators
    • Pressure gauge
    • Hoses
    • Nozzles
      • Flat fan nozzle
      • Off center
  • Sprayers for Right-of-Way Maintenance
    • Portable sprayers
      • Compressed air sprayers
      • Backpack mist blowers
    • Truck or vehicle mounted sprayers
      • High pressure spray rigs
      • Low pressure spray rigs
      • Truck mounted mist blowers
      • Aerial sprayers

Lesson 9 – Equipment and Calibration – cont.

  • Calibrating Boom Sprayers
  • Calibrating Granular Spreaders
  • Hand Application
  • Dosage-Regulated Applications

Lesson 10 – Public Relations

  • Differences in Perception
    • Do's and Don'ts
    • Carelessness
    • Drainage
    • Toxic plants
    • Problems for landowners
    • Marijuana
    • Brown out
  • Safety Measures

Chapter Assessment

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